Saudi law says every woman must have a male guardian, who has enormous power over her life and travel.
The Saudi government has digitized parts of the guardian system, letting Saudi men manage women's lives online.
INSIDER spoke with Shahad al-Mohaimeed, a refugee who navigated this system to flee her family in 2017.
Guardians can specify when and from which airports women can travel, effectively trapping them in Saudi Arabia.
The system includes a text-messaging system that alerts men when women use their passports. They are often able to catch them as a result.
The system has existed for years, but it has come under renewed scrutiny after the high-profile asylum claim of the Saudi teen Rahaf Mohammed.
INSIDER also spoke with activists and women's-rights experts to highlight the full extent of the system.